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Insulin is a two chain polypeptide hormone with a molecular weight of 6,000. It has a wide effect on metabolic processes. A unifying characteristic is that insulin promotes anabolic processes and inhibits catabolic ones in muscle, liver and adipose tissue. Specifially, insulin increases the rate of synthesis on glycogen, fatty acids and proteins and also stimulates glycolysis. The important action of the hormone is promoting the entry of glucose, some simple sugars and amino acids across the plasma membrane into muscle and fat cells. Where epinephrine and glucagon signal that glucose is scarce, insulin signals that glucose is abundant. Work by Sanger and his coworkers (Sanger, F. & Thompson, E.O.P. & Kitai, R., Biochem J., 59, 521, 1955) elucidated the primary structure of insulin, and the X-ray crystallographic work of Hodgkin et al (Adams, M.J., et al, Nature, 224, 491, 1969 and Bentley, et al, Nature, 261, 166, 1976) has given us the secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of the native two-zinc crystalline hormone. Bentley (1976) reported the X-ray structure of a second form of insulin, a slow-acting clinical preparation, which crystallizes with four zinc ions when the sodium and chloride ion concentration in the solution is 6% or more. Insulin is isolated from the pancreas glands of bovine and is prepared by the procedure of Smith, Am. J. Med., 40, 662, 1966.


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2-Phosphoenol Pyruvate Acid 3-Indoxyl Phosphate
3-Phosphoglycerate Kinase Acetone Powders
Acetyl Cholinesterase Acid Phosphatase
Actin Acylase
Adenosine 5'-diphosphate Adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)
Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) Adenosine Deaminase
Alcohol Dehydrogenase Aldehyde Dehydrogenase
Aldolase Alkaline Phosphatase
alpha-Amylase alpha-D-Glucose-1-Phosphate
alpha-Glucosidase alpha-Ketoglutarate
Amylopectin Amylose
Apo-d-Amino Acid Oxidase Ascorbate Oxidase
Avidin beta-Amylase
beta-Glucosidase beta-Glucronidase
beta-NAD beta-NADH
beta-NADPH Bromelain
Butyryl Cholinesterase C-Reactive Protein
Carbonic Anhydrase Carboxypeptidase A
Carboxypeptidase B Carboxypeptidase Y
Catalase Catechol-o-Methyl Transferase
Cathepsin D Cholesterol Esterase
Chymotrypsin d-Amino Acid Oxidase
d-Glucose-6-Phosphate Deoxyribonuclease (DNase)
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) Elastase
Enterokinase Ferritin
G-6-phosphate Dehydrogenase gamma-Glutamyl Transferase
Glucose Oxidase Glutamate Dehydrogenase
Glutathione Peroxidase Glycerol Kinase
Glycerol-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase Glycosylated Albumin
Glycosylated Hemoglobin GOT (AST)
GPT (ALT) Hemoglobin
 Hexokinase Histamine-n-Methyl Transferase
Hyaluronic Acid Hyaluronidase
Insulin L-Arginase
L-gamma-Glutamide Nitroanilide Lactate Dehydrogenase
Lactoperoxidase Leucine Aminopeptidase
Lipase Lipoamide Dehydrogenase
Lipoxidase Luciferase
Lysozyme Malate Dehydrogenase
Mutarotase Myelin
Myoglobin Myosin
Oxyhemoglobin p-Nitrophenyl Phosphate
Pepsin Peroxidase
Phosphorylase-b Phspho(enol) Pyruvate Carboxylase
PNMT Prophospholipase A2
Protein Methylase II Pyruvate Kinase
Renin Rennin
Ribonuclease Sedoheptulose
Stachyose Superoxide Dismutase
Thyroglobulin Triose Phosphate Isomerase
Trypsin Trypsin Inhibitor
Tyrosinase Urease
Uricase Xanthine Oxidase