(Mucopeptide N-acetylmuramylhydrolase; EC 188.8.131.52)
Lysozyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of §-1,4 glucosidic linkages
which occur in the cell walls of microorganisms. It is widely
distributed in animals and plants. Lysozyme from chicken egg
white has been extensively studied. It is a basic protein with
a molecular weight of approximately 14,000.
Lysozyme is normally present in plasma (5.9 mg/l) but only in
trace amounts in urine. In certain renal disorders, urinary
excretion of lysozyme is significantly increased, which could
be of diagnostic significance (Harrison, J.F.; Parker,
R.W. and De Silva, K.L., J. Clin. Pathol., 26, 278,
1973). Analysis of serum lysozyme levels could also be used as
a diagnostic tool in acute and chronic myelocytic leukemia and
in acute lymphocytic leukemia (Grossowicz, N.; Ariel, M. and
Weber, T., Clin. Chem., 25, 484, 1979).